Today, Chile has the largest average winery size in the world, where several giant companies account for the majority of total bottle production, yet a vital small-winery movement has taken root in recent years. Dozens of boutique operations have concentrated on production sizes of about 10,000 cases per year or less since the latter half of the 1990s. These small wineries have been instrumental in extending the boundaries of Chilean wine country, which had largely been centered in the middle of the country near the capital city of Santiago. Now, winemaking regions run from the northerly Atacama Desert all the way south to the Lake District. Chile's largest wine region in terms of size and volume, Maule is the warmest and driest of those south of Santiago. Rafael Tirado purchased land here in 1990, in the eastern front range of the Chilean Andes, then planted his first estate vines in volcanic ash over granite. He currently has five parcels totaling 18 hectares legally recognized as part of the Colbun subregion, and Rafael is the only estate producer in the DO. Dedicated to quality and small production, he built a small gravity fed winery and a geothermal barrel and bottle room on the property in 1999, and currently crafts wines under the Laberinto and Vistalago labels.